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Achromatopsia is a type of cone dystrophy where there are normally problems only with vision from cone photoreceptors, the ones responsible for color and day vision and visual acuity.

Adult Stem Cell

see Stem Cell

Age-Related Eye Disease Study


Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

Age-related macular degeneration is a retinal degenerative disease that causes a progressive loss of central vision. AMD is the most common cause of blindness and vision impairment in Americans aged 60 and older. There are two types of AMD: dry (earlier stage) and wet (later stage).


see Age-Related Macular Degeneration


The growth of new blood vessels. When growing in places they shouldn't, they can cause disease, such as wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD).


A nutritional supplement (like vitamins C or E), drug, or naturally occurring product that protects cells from damage induced by light, stress or metabolic processes (called oxidation). Antioxidants are also prevalent in foods, such as vegetables and fruits.

Apoptosis or Programmed Cell Death

A controlled process for cell death, triggered by a signal or biochemical reaction, in response to an accumulation of cellular damage.

AREDS (Age-Related Eye Disease Study)

A clinical study that determined a specific nutritional supplementation regimen for prolonging retention of vision in individuals with age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Autosomal Dominant Disease

Disease caused when an individual inherits a disease-causing mutation in one copy of a gene pair.

Autosomal Recessive Disease

Disease caused when an individual inherits a mutation(s) that may not cause disease unless both copies of a gene pair are mutated.


Any chromosome within the 22 pairs of non-sex (not X or Y) chromosomes inherited by every individual from their biological parents.

Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS)

Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a complex disorder that affects many parts of the body including the retina. Individuals with BBS have a retinal degeneration similar to retinitis pigmentosa (RP).


see Bardet-Biedl Syndrome

Best Disease

Best disease is an inherited form of juvenile macular degeneration characterized by a loss of central vision.


A nutritional pigment (and antioxidant) that can be used in the visual cycle of the eye. It is responsible for the orange color of carrots and other fruits and vegetables.

Bruch's membrane

The blood-retina barrier that separates the retina from the rest of the body, that is often broken in individuals with wet AMD.


Tetraterpenoid organic pigments that are naturally occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria, and some types of fungus.


see Cell-Based Therapy


The smallest building-block of a living being that is capable of functioning on its own.

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