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Iowa Researchers Use Skin Cells to Gain Insights into Retinitis Pigmentosa

A lab technicianThough retinal researchers have been working with induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) for little more than five years, I still find it amazing what they’re doing with them. Scientists are able to take small samples of skin or blood cells from a patient, genetically turn back the clock on those cells, so that they revert back to a stem-cell state, and then coax them forward to become retinal cells. From there, the resulting cells might be used as a transplantation therapy, as a platform for testing potential treatments in a dish and as a resource for learning why retinal diseases cause vision loss and how to prevent it.

I am particularly excited about Foundation-funded iPSC research at the University of Iowa recently published in the journal eLife. A team led by Ed Stone, M.D., Ph.D., and Budd Tucker, Ph.D., has gained valuable insights into retinitis pigmentosa (RP) caused by defects in the gene USH2A, which, depending on how it’s mutated, can cause vision loss from RP or combined vision and hearing loss from Usher syndrome type 2A.

The Iowa researchers created retinal tissue from the skin of a 62-year-old patient with vision loss from USH2A-associated RP. The knowledge they’re gaining from studying these cells — which, in essence, are human models of disease — is guiding the research community toward developing effective therapies for saving and restoring vision.

In its experiment, the Iowa team developed an eyecup from the skin cells of the USH2A patient. You can think of an eyecup as being like a retina during the early-development stage. Creating the eyecup was in itself a remarkable achievement, given the many types of cells that make up the retina and their complex organization. The ability to do this validates that viable retinal cells can be derived from iPSC.

Next, the investigators observed the activity of the USH2A gene, which is defective in these partially developed cells. By studying the effects of the mutations on retinal cells, they are determining which therapeutic strategies — such as corrective gene therapy or cell replacement — might have the best chance of working.

But perhaps the most noteworthy part of the investigation was the transplantation of the eyecup into mice with a retinal degeneration. After transplantation, the eyecups’ photoreceptor precursors integrated into the mice retinas and further developed into what the researchers call “recognizable” photoreceptors.

This is good news on two fronts. First, it indicates that USH2A defects don’t have a significant effect on photoreceptor development, which occurs before birth in humans. This is consistent with the fact that many USH2A patients maintain relatively useful vision into young adulthood. Second, it shows that cells from an older adult are viable for producing and transplanting iPSC-derived retinal cells.

Because photoreceptors affected by USH2A mutations degenerate slowly, we might be able to replace them in adult patients without using gene therapy to correct the defect. The newly transplanted photoreceptors — derived from the patient’s skin or blood — would have the USH2A defect, but would likely provide useful vision for a few decades.

That doesn’t mean that gene therapy should not also be pursued. Genetically corrected transplanted retinal cells would be the optimal solution. However, because the USH2A gene is relatively large, it has thus far been difficult to design a gene therapy that can deliver the large USH2A cargo to affected retinal cells. But Foundation-funded researchers such as Luk Vandenberghe, Ph.D., of Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, are working on the gene therapy cargo challenge, as well. So, down the road, we may have multiple options for USH2A treatments — with and without gene therapy.

While this particular project is basic research — it isn’t preparing a specific therapy for a human study — it provides critical information for developing future treatments. It gives us clear targets for what our best therapeutic strategies might be. That’s why the Foundation funds a balance of both clinical and basic scientific studies. Both are essential for getting vision-saving cures out to the people who need them.

By the way, the first-ever clinical trial for an iPSC-derived, retinal-disease treatment (for wet age-related macular degeneration) just moved into a clinical trial in Japan.

Stay tuned to the Foundation’s online and print publications for more updates on this exciting and quickly emerging technology.

Pictured, above: Dr. Budd Tucker isolates induced pluripotent stem cells from a patient with a retinal disease.





15 Responses to 'Iowa Researchers Use Skin Cells to Gain Insights into Retinitis Pigmentosa'

  1. Norma Hakim says:

    Hello, I have Retinitis Pigmentosa/Ushers Syndrome. I have a referral letter for studies/clinical trials. Its getting worse fast, and I’m 37 years old. Please how do I get enrolled in a study asap? This is very detrimental to my life. Thank you Norma Hakim

    • EyeOnTheCure says:

      Norma, while we fund research for clinical trials, we do not conduct the trials ourselves. We would recommend that you visit

      On this website, which is maintained by the National Health Institute, you are able to search for RP/Usher clinical trials by searching based on your disease. Each clinical trial listing will tell you more about what the study is about and how you can contact them to see if they are recruiting and what the participant criteria may be.

      We hope this information is helpful and encourage you to contact us for additional help or further information if needed.

  2. laura duffany says:

    my 32 yr old son has RP , how does he enroll in the study?

    • EyeOnTheCure says:

      Laura, thanks for your comment. While we are hopeful that this type of research will lead to human studies and perhaps future treatments, this particular trial is not a human study. This is discussed towards the end of the blog post. In the meantime, please stay tuned as this work progresses.

  3. Le Binh says:

    Dear Sirs,

    My name is Le Binh. I am from Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam. My daughter is 18 year sold. She has got retina pigmentosa degeneration since 2008 and now she is nearly blind. She studied in 9th grade 5 years ago as a normal pupil. Now she is studying the “Braille”…
    Please tell me how to treat her eyes.. Can your insitute have any new and advanced methor for treatment such disease.

    Thanks and best regards,

    Le Binh

  4. David Thatcher says:

    I have RP and I am 39 years old. I would like to be in your study.

  5. I have to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this
    website. I’m hoping to check out the same high-grade blog posts by you in the
    future as well. In fact, your creative writing abilities has inspired me
    to get my very own site now 😉

  6. Dinesh Gupta says:

    Hello sir,
    I am 25yr.Suffering from Night Blindness problem since 3yrs because of RP,my doctor took a sample of my blood to search genes detail that effecting my eyes.After searching detail about my genes he told me to go through USH2A Gene i am just hoping for the best.!
    Good Luck to you sir,may you become success in research and provide successful treatment .!

    Thanks and Regards..!

  7. Rina D. says:

    Hi, my name is Rina. I am currently 27 years old and was diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa when I was just a teenager. I’ve always had night blindness. I feel that within the last year or two, I’ve noticed a lot has changed with my eye condition and that I don’t see what I used to see, and of course, that is due to its natural progression of RP. I was wondering if I may be a part of this study to see if it can help improve my vision. Please let me know what are the steps to getting involved with the study. I was a part of another studied that didn’t have any effect on my vision improving. I can share more about it later. Thank you!

    • EyeOnTheCure says:

      Hi Rina, If you have not done so already, you should consider genetic testing to identify the mutant gene responsible for causing your RP. If the gene is identified, medical databases such as PubMed ( can be searched to identify any research that is being conducted. With a molecular diagnosis, you may qualify for gene therapy trials that are taking place. For information on genetic testing, please see the following web link to download a PDF document:

      Whether your disease gene is identified or not, you should still consider participating in FFB’s “My Retina Tracker”, a free registry that monitors clinical trials that are recruiting for various retinal diseases. For more information on “My Retina Tracker” please see the following web link:

      It may also be helpful to periodically check the website: http://WWW.CLINICALTRIALS.GOV which is maintained by the National Institutes of Health and contains a searchable list of clinical trials for most known diseases. Each clinical trial listing will provide you with information on what the study is about, the requirements for participating and contact information.

  8. Pasha HAZRAT says:

    Dear sir!

    Since 10 years I have Eye best’s disease, but no treatment. If you can help me, It would be pleased to meet you. I have full coverage Insurance.

    Thank you for your attention.

    • EyeOnTheCure says:

      Dear Pasha, Best disease, also known as vitelliform macular dystrophy, is an inherited form of macular degeneration characterized by a loss of central vision. For more information on Best disease, please see the following link: You will be happy to know that the Foundation Fighting Blindness is currently funding research efforts at the University of Pennsylvania and University of Wisconsin to develop a gene therapy treatment for Best disease. Already, preliminary data has been published showing that gene therapy can stop disease progression in a dog model. Here is the link: If successful, these research studies will be moved under the jurisdiction of FFB’s Clinical Research Institute which is focused on the development of human clinical trials. There is however, a lot of work to be done before a trial can start. Toxicity and dosing studies in large animals, additional safety studies, generation of a GMP viral vector that can be used in humans and the filing of regulatory paperwork with the FDA are just a few of the things that need to be done before the trial can start. Thank you for your support that is helping to accelerate the development of new safe and effective treatments for inherited retinal disease.

  9. Hugh says:

    Thanks for the wonderful article

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